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One Day International Seminar on "ICT & Value Education: Issues & Challenges"
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Achievements
Science Exhibition
The latest studies have shown that students in general lack interest in the study of science, due to lack of experimental culture in the Educational Insitutions.

Aims Of Education

Gandhi's aims of education are both individual and social. He has tried to synthesise the two types of aims. Just like plate who dreamt of a u to pain, ideal state, similarly Gandhi dreamt of "Ramaraya" - a new social order based on truth and non - violence. He wanted to bring a total transformation in his life of the Indian society - economic, social, political and cultural life. Education for the individual is one that liberation. The motto of gujarath Vidyapeeth, founded by Gandhi in 1920 is 'SA VIDYA YA VIMUKTAYA' education is that which liberation. "Liberation means spiritual liberation it means freedom from all manner of servitude even in the present life". He identified two forms of servitude - slavery to domination from outside, slavery to one's own natural impulses. He assets character and citizenship are two other individual aims. Character is the end of knowledge. It includes all trainings useful for the service of humanity. It is rather engaging in good than restraining from evil. A scene of social responsibility is subsumed in the ideal of citizenship. The most significant individual aim is the vocational aim. It is a utilitarian aim. Here craft is the basis and centre of all education. Gandhi wanted that education must enable every individual to earn his living independently. In Harijan, a newspaper of September 11, issue Gandhi white, 'education should be an insurance against unemployment'. Gandhi advocates that education should be an agent of cultural preservation and reconstruction. Inner cultural must be reflected in our speech and it should be the quality of one's soul providing all aspects of human behaviour. Through education Gandhi wanted to develop the whole man. He wanted to train the head, heart and hand of the child.

CURRICULUM
Curriculum in Gandhi's scheme is activity centred and craft centred. As M.S patel has put it in style; "Craft occupies the position of the sun in the vast solar system of human life" satisfying our material needs in perfect harmony with the higher values of life. The subject in the curriculum includes the following:

  1. Basic craft - Agriculture, Spinning, Weaving etc.
  2. mother - tongue.
  3. Mathematics - useful for craft and community life.
  4. Social studies - social and economic life of the community, culture the country, history of craft etc.
  5. general science - nature study, zoology, physiology, hygiene, physical culture, anatomy, etc.
  6. drawing and music.
Gandhiji advocated uniform education for boys and girls up to the fifth grade and diversified education there after - general science to be replaced by domestic science for girls along with craft for both. He laid special stress on development of good handwriting. The technique of correlation is another characteristic of the scheme. This will encourage self - activity rather than role memory.

METHODS OF TEACHING
Gandhiji advocated the following methods of teaching: -
  1. Mother tongue to be the medium of instruction.
  2. Productive craft as the basic of all education.
  3. Teaching through creative and productive activities.
  4. Learning by doing.
  5. Learning by living, service and participation, self - experience.
  6. Correlation the most valid technique of teaching.
  7. Lecture, questioning and discussion method.
  8. Oral instruction to personal study.
  9. All syllabi should be woven around vocational training.
CONCEPT OF DISCIPLINE
His concept of discipline is based on self - control. Self control refers to inner discipline which leads to self - discipline. His concept of discipline was, however in tune with social discipline. He emphasised the value of self - discipline in life. He assists that every individual is a productive citizen, a worker and a parent. Education is to be recognized as a potent means for generating then us - feeling among the individuals to make them, useful and responsible citizen of their country.

ROLE OF TEACHER
He wanted the teacher to be a model of behaviour an image of society a compendium of virtues. He wanted teachers to teach by example than by precept. He opposed corporal punishment. How can an apostle of non - violence advocated anything like that? Teacher must be well - trained, proficient, man of knowledge faith action and devotion. Teachers are responsible for carving the statues of their students. A teacher should be the epicene of character, a symbol of values, well - disciplined, a unique personality, cultured and having a good mentality. His serenity and magnanimity should be outstanding and shining. He should be polite, pious and having sea of knowledge. He should be a psychologist, a philosophies, a historian, a technologist in the matters of knowledge and seduction. He should be a guide, mentor and guru for imparting knowledge to the students - the valuable pearls.

CONCEPT OF SCHOOL
In the words of Gandhiji, "a school is a place to live by making enquiries, experimentations and discoveries. It is a community centre, cradle for future citizenship and place for physical, intellectual social, moral and spiritual development". As M.S Patel has observed; "the school of Gandhi's imagination imparted second - hand, but will be a place of work, experimentation and discovery, because it will follow an activity - curriculum. The child acquires his knowledge activity and utilises it for the understanding and better control of his social environment".

BASIC SCHEME OF EDUCATION
In Maharashtra, at wardha, Gandhiji formulated his basic scheme of education. It is also called Nai - lalim. At the very outset of the launching of the scheme, at wardha, Gandhiji observed, "the present system of education does not meet the requirements of the country in any shape or form. English having been made the medium of instruction in all higher branches of learning has created a permanent bar between the highly educated few and the uneducated many. Absence of vocational training has made the educated class almost fit for productive work and harmed them physically. Money spent on primary education is a waste of expenditure in as much as what little is taught is soon forgotten and has little or no value in terms of villages and cities for all the round development of boys and girls we have to impart them vocational training". He further argued that Nai - talim is life giving where as education given by the foreign government was necessarily life - destroying. Basic education covers the whole life. In the words of Prof. Castle, "Wardha scheme of basic education is one of the most interesting and promising development in Indian education. But basic education has not been a success, not because it has been tried and failed, but because it has not yet been fairly tried". So far as the scheme of education is concerned, it is based on amalgamation of the philosophy of naturalism and pragmatism. The whole programme of education is a programme of real enfoldment, all the tine bringing out something that is within the child by removing all the outward inhibitions, and external obstacles. The entire scheme of education is rooted in non - violence, respect for the individual and love of freedom for the lowest. His scheme of education was a part of his politico - socio - economic reformation programme of uplifting the poor and the down trodden. So his scheme of education is naturalistic in its setting, idealistic in its aims and pragmatic in methods.

FUNDAMENTALS OF BASIC EDUCATION
(WARDHA SCHEME)

Free compulsory education: - assented that within the ages 7 and 14 education should be free, compulsory and universal. As a concession for girls, if their guardians to devise, could be withdrawn from the school after their twelfth year. During this period of seven years Gandhiji planned to include primary, middle and high school education. He stated that primary education was the minimum which must be given to all.

Mother tongue to be the medium of all institutions: -
Gandhiji stressed that mother - tongue should be the medium of all institutions. He believes that no real education is possible through a foreign language. The Foreign language causes brain fag, stifles all originality puts undue stain on the nerves of our children and makes them only crammers. On the other hand the mother –tongue will help the children to think quickly, to express easily and freely and to bring out clarity of ideas. It will introduce the child to the each heritage of his ancient culture.

Craft as the centre of education: - all subjects like history, geography, arithmetic, science, language, painting etc. Should be correlated with craft. By teaching craft, Gandhi's object was not to produce craftsmen but he wanted to exploit the craft for educative purposes. Craft centred education will develop certain qualities for head and heart. It will bring to play cooperative activities, dignity of labour, planning, accuracy, initiative, responsibility, emotional catharsis and equalisation of classes.

Self supporting element: -To Gandhiji self sufficiency is acid test of basic education. The pails must be able to meet the salary of their teacher through the sale of products of their crafts. The state should pay for the other expenses such as for furniture, books, tools, and school buildings. The state provides the marketing facilities for the goods produced in the school. So, wardha scheme of education is based on the principle, "Learn while you earn and earn while you learn".

Culture of non - violence: - Non - violence is the panacea for all the evils. Gandhiji said, "where the whole atmosphere is redolent with the pure fragrance of him a (non - violence), boys and girls studying together will live like brothers and sisters in freedom and yet in.

self - imposed restraint: the students will be bound to the teachers in the ties of filial love, mutual respect and mutual trust". According to Gandhiji, "every act of students should be accomplished by love".

Ideal of citizenship: -It is the wardha scheme of education that encourages co-operation and lays the foundation of ideal citizenship. It will enable the child to discharge his duties and responsibilities of a good citizen. Character of the students should be developed. It will promote a sense of social service, dignity and efficiency. It will enshrine with the effulgence of patriotism.

Relation with life: - wardha scheme of education lays emphasis on the life activities and problems of children within the ambiance of school. This is to be achieved through the principle of correlation and integration.

A Retrospect: - the wardha scheme of education was put forward by M.K. Gandhi in1937. Under the chairmanship of Dr. Zakir Hussain, a tentative and detailed syllabus was framed out. Its main features were: -

  1. That there should be free and compulsory education given to all children for a period of seven years.
  2. That the medium of instruction should be the mother tongue.
  3. That the process of education should be centred round some form of manual, productive work in the shape of a craft.
  4. The education should self - supporting to some extent.
  5. That the education should enable the child to discharge his duties and responsibilities of a good citizen.
  6. That the education should help the child in understanding and solving the problems of life.
  7. That the future citizens of this country should be imbued with the ideal if non - violence.
  8. That the education should be based on the principle, "Learn while you earn and earn while you learn".
  9. That the craft in basic education is to be chosen keeping in view the local needs and in harmony with the local environment.
  10. That the minimum universal education, which he considered indispensable for the successful working of democracy.
Main Features of Basic Education: -
  1. That the process of education should centre round some form of manual, productive work and all teaching is to be, as far as possible integrally related to it.
  2. That the social and physical environment of the pupils may also be used for purpose of correlation.
  3. That the evaluation of students is to be only internal and on the on the basis of day - to - day work of pupils. No external examinations need to be held.
  4. That the text books should be avoided as far as possible.
  5. That cleanliness, health, citizenship, work and worship, play and recreation should be given people emphasis.
Potentialities of Basic Education:-
As a new scheme of education the Nai Talim has the following potentialities: -
  1. It will provide a healthy and moral basin between the city and the village and go a long way towards eradicating some of the worst evils of the present.
  2. Children learn facts best in a social context.
  3. While we learn from those working for us, we also teach in the scientific way known to educational psychology.
  4. Introduction of practical work will tend to break down the existing barriers of prejudice between manual and intellectual workers, harmful like for both.
  5. The scheme is totally innovative philosophy of education.
  6. The scheme is a new method of teaching in his own words, "the principle idea is to impact the whole education of the body, and the mind and the soul through the handicraft that is taught to the children".
  7. A child at the outset is initiated into and made aware of the world of beauty that surrounds. It is an admitted fact that there is a sense of joy and triumph after one creates a work of art.
  8. Self - sufficiency is not an end but only a means. Education will have an economic basis in keeping with the social environments.
  9. This education is intended to build attitudes, appreciation, understanding and skills which will nourish our democracy. It helps the children to become confident, self - reliant and self - respecting. So the basic education aims for good citizenship.
  10. Basic scheme aims to do away with the feeling of the dignity of labour.
Basic Scheme in Action: -
there are the following contents of the basic scheme of education: -

1.   Craft
a.     Spinning and weaving.
b.    Gardening leading to agriculture.
c.    Book - craft including paper and card board work leading to wood and metal work.
d.    Leather work.
e.    Clay and pottery.
f.     Fisheries.
g.    Home craft.
2.    Mother - tongue.
3.    Social studies.
4.    Mathematics.
5.    General science.
6.    Art including drawing, music, and aesthetics generally.
7.    Hindi
8.   Games and physical activities.

CRITICAL ESTIMATE
The practice is lagging behind theory so much that the scheme is being criticized on multiple grounds. Some of the critical points are: -
  1. The teacher gets no guidance or encouragement from these quarters and he relapses into inefficiency and ineffectiveness.
  2. The teachers are utterly unable to put them into practice with children. Also they are not well – paid and this makes that matter still worse.
  3. Basic education has turned out to be a system of education for the lower classes.
  4. Teaching through craft is only a slogan, a fiction which is practiced on ceremonial occasion for the benefit of visitors.
  5. Craft work is popular with the teacher as not dictation is with university professors.
  6. Basic education is activity - centred in the symbolic and verbal sense only.
  7. Art has not been recognized as integral part of education.
  8. Basic school are indifferently run on old, outdated methodology and do not turn out either good academically trained students or well - versed in useful crafts.
  9. The scope of the basic education has got reduced and has failed to achieve any results.
  10. The students from basic school are detained parity with students from other schools.
  11. Basic education is craft - centred but not child  - centred. If it is because it takes no note of play way activities in education.
  12. In this scheme double - mindedness is the biggest weakness.

SOME SUGGESTIONS
  1. The multicoloured warp and woof will leave a glorious pattern. Let the pattern of basic education dovetail in the national fabric of secondary and higher education.
  2. Basic education will be able to achieve its objectives only when Manvel work is given its legitimate place in society and there is a nationwide genuine desire to organize our national life as a cooperative community of productive works.
  3. There should be the improvement in the status of teachers.
  4. Activities like camping, conmen mess, excursions, dramas, cleanliness of the school premise, daily earliness committee and various other clubs, other than craftwork, can instil dignity of labour and the spirit of cooperation in the children.
  5. A large measure of freedom for children to choose, plan, execute the kinds of craft projects on which they would like to work must be given.
  6. A good scheme of education should incorporate the way and means for the spiritual and material welfare of the citizens.
  7. Craft works should be modernized.
  8. Double - misled should end.

Thus, the scheme stands for a new spirit and approach to all education, which will make our schools 'spearheads of a silent social revolution, nurseries of a truly free democracy'

Exercise

Q1. How would you justify the principle of self - sufficiency for elementary education in welfare stets of the socialistic pattern?
Q2. "Literacy of the whole personality" and "drawing out the best in the individual" is two aims of basic education. Elucidate.
Q3. "Craft is basic education should be self - supporting not for reasons economic but for reasons educational". Explain.
Q4. Write a critical account of the basic education?
Q5. Discuss the bottlenecks in basic education. Give some suggestions to remove them.

REFERENCES / BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.Gandhiji: -my experiments with truth.
2.Gandhiji: -towards new education.
3.Gandhiji: -to the student.
4.Mani, R.S educational ideas and ideals of Gandhi and Tagore.
5.Walia. J.S theory and principles of education.
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